Br Med J. 1956.21;1:154.
Treatment of baldness with beta-pyridyl-carbinol.
HART VE, et al.
Hair loss and hairloss treatment with a carbinol
hair loss blogspot
J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol. 1992;12(2):63
Altered retinoid distribution in the repeated epilation (Er) mutant mouse.Jones AH, et al
edited for blog use
The repeated epilation mutation in mice causes successive loss and regrowth of hair in heterozygotes (Er/+), and blocks orofacial development and epidermal differentiation in lethal homozygotes (Er/Er). Because the mutation affects a systemic factor, because the Er phenotypes resemble exposure to excess retinoids and because retinoids are critical regulators of epithelial differentiation, we examined whether systemic retinoid levels are altered by the Er defect. …snip.. These results strongly suggest that altered retinoid distribution is associated with, and may be responsible for, the altered epithelial differentiation in the Er mutant.
Arch Dermatol Res. 1987;279(8):550
Immunohistochemical demonstration of MAM-3 and MAM-6 antigens in normal human skin appendages and their tumors.
Tsubura A,et al
However, none of the antigenic epitopes was expressed in normal squamous epithelium or hair follicles. In benign tumors, the staining patterns for both antigens, in general, resembled their distribution in the corresponding normal tissues. However, carcinomas originating from sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and the pilar apparatus expressed both antigens in a more irregular and heterogeneous pattern. This might preferably be explained by the loss of those mechanisms controlling the antigen expression in mature, functional tissues. Conclusions from these immunohistochemical studies with regard to the histogenesis mainly of the malignant skin appendage tumors should be drawn with caution.
J Cutan Pathol.1978;5(3):93
Differential patterns of elastic fibers in scarring and non-scarring alopecias.
Elastic fiber stain reveals diagnostically significant differences between several types of alopecia (hair loss) of the scalp. Elastic fiber distribution on the normal hair follicle emphasizes the elastic coat of the follicular isthmus, the sparsity of elastic fibers on the cyclic lower portion of the hair root, and the presence in the neck of the dermal papilla of an elastin-like body which is formed anew with each hair cycle. This body provides a marker of the gradual shortening of successive anagen hairs in male pattern alopecia. Patterns of elastic fibers in the perifollicular and interfollicular dermis are helpful in differentiating idiopathic pseudopelade of Brocq from pseudopeladic states secondary to lupus erythematosus and other disease processes. Within the idiopathic group, the development of elastic fibres on the lower cyclic portion of the hair root identifies a sub-group that may have a different, non-inflammatory pathogenesis and is provisionally designated as fibrosing alopecia.
edited— hair loss and hair loss treatment and regrowth blog.
Anat Rec. 1977;187(2):257
Histochemical evidence of mucosubstances in the metaplastic epidermis and hair follicles produced in vitro in the presence of excess vitamin A
A.Bellows CG, Hardy MH.
Pieces of upper lip and lower jaw from 13-day old mouse embryos grown in organ culture with excess vitamin A showed metaplastic changes in epidermis and hair follicles after 7 to 21 days…snip… The hair follicles, transformed by vitamin A into glands, developed three types of epithelium with apical granules, luminal borders and occasional goblet cells, all showing mucosubstances. Tests suggest that both metaplastic epidermis and glands secrete either neutral mucosubstances or non-sulfated acidic mucosubstances. Another response to vitamin A was a rapid loss of glycogen, particularly in hair follicles and the epidermal basal layer. It was concluded that excess vitamin A alters not only the morphogenesis but also the distribution and synthesis of polysaccharides in developing skin.
Hair Follicle Placement
Plast Reconstr Surg. 1994 Mar;93(3):615-20.
The “pluck and sew” technique of individual hair follicle placement.
Caputy GG, Flowers RS.
A novel and simple approach to single hair follicle transplantation for hair loss treatment is a hair threaded on a curved needle with the follicle attached. It is the best aesthetically acceptable procedure in certain areas, namely the eyebrow, the sideburn, the hair margin, areas requiring precise grafting following face lift procedures, and the eyelash. The presented technique simplifies the precise, oriented placement of single hair grafts and has been time-tested by the senior author for the last 20 years.
Dermatol Surg. 1997 Sep;23(9):771-84;
Follicular transplantation. Patient evaluation and surgical planning.
Bernstein RM, Rassman WR.
BACKGROUND: Follicular transplantation is a method of hair restoration surgery that uses hair in its naturally occurring groups called follicular units. By using the follicular unit exclusively in the transplant, the surgeon can move extensive quantities of implants in a single session to complete the hair restoration in as few sessions as possible. OBJECTIVE: To briefly review the salient features of follicular transplantation, to discuss how the patient should be evaluated for the follicular transplant procedure, and to provide guidelines for the planning of the first and subsequent transplant sessions. This paper will examine: 1) ways to anticipate future hair loss, 2) how to assess donor reserves, 3) what can be accomplished in a single transplant session, 4) how to plan for subsequent sessions, and 5) how to manage the patient with diffuse androgenetic alopecia. METHODS: Follicular transplantation is performed according to techniques detailed in a previous publication (Bernstein et al. Int J Aesthet Rest Surg 1995;3:119-32). RESULTS: Excellent cosmetic results can be achieved when there is meticulous attention to transplanting intact follicular units, when the extent of balding is accurately assessed, and when the finite nature of the donor supply is respected. CONCLUSIONS: Because of their small “physiologic” size, follicular implants enable the surgeon to transplant large numbers in a single session. Follicular transplantation will greatly increase the benefits of the hair restoration procedure when the patient is thoroughly evaluated and when the procedure is undertaken after careful short- and long-term planning.
Br J Dermatol. 1984 Feb;110(2):155-62
Alopecia areata: light and electron microscopic pathology of the regrowing white hair
.Messenger AG, Bleehen SS.
Light and electron microscopic studies have been carried out on fifteen regrowing white anagen hair follicles from seven patients with hair loss secondary to alopecia areata. Seven bulbs showed evidence of cell injury that was concentrated in cortical keratocytes. Lower bulb matrix cells appeared undamaged though in six bulbs apoptotic degeneration was seen in the lower bulb keratocytes, perhaps indicating early catagen transformation. Melanocytes were identified in all the bulbs except those from one patient. The number of melanocytes and their melanization were much less than in the normal pigmented follicle, and pigment transfer was rarely seen. It is proposed that alopecia areata is a disease of differentiating cortical keratocytes. The failure of pigmentation in the regrowing white hair may be post-inflammatory, but the various other pigmentary features of alopecia areata, especially the sparing of senile white hairs, suggest that pigmentary mechanisms in the hair bulb are of primary importance in the pathogenesis of this disorder.
Male Pattern Baldness
South Med J. 2000 Jul;93(7):657-62.
Male pattern baldness.
Hogan DJ, Chamberlain M.
BACKGROUND: Male pattern baldness, or androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in men, occurs with varying severity and age of onset. Two new treatments widely available as alternatives to 2% minoxidil are 1 mg finasteride and topical 5% minoxidil. Finasteride is a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor available by prescription only; 5% minoxidil is available over the counter. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE to identify all articles on AGA and its pharmacologic therapies. RESULTS: We found limited information on AGA in peer review medical journals. Associated diseases include psychologic disorders and coronary heart disease. Hair regrowth is unpredictable and limited for all pharmacologic therapies, with the vast majority of treatment studies being industry sponsored. CONCLUSION: AGA is not easy to treat. Finasteride and 5% minoxidil offer new therapeutic options to the balding man. Treatment options may improve as new drugs are further investigated.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2003 Aug;60(8):1613-22.
Recent advances in androgen receptor action.
Lee HJ, Chang C.
Androgens, principally testosterone and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, play critical roles in the development and growth of the male reproductive and nonreproductive systems (Dr Proctor: as well as male pattern hair loss ). Their biological actions are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. These androgen-AR complexes interact with various factors (e.g. coactivators or corepressors) to modulate transcription of androgen target genes via specific DNA sequences. Many lines of evidence have also correlated AR with several mammalian disorders. Finally, recent advances in molecular biology have significantly impacted our knowledge of the role of AR in mammals. The aim of this review is to present recent emerging aspects of AR action.
Clin Exp Dermatol. 1990;15:34
Natural history of androgenetic alopecia.
Olsen EA, et al
Males with pattern hair loss were studied to establish the natural progression of hair loss over a period of time typical of studies of hair regrowth promoters. The methodology employed was the same as that in published clinical trials of topical minoxidil, but the men refrained from application of either active drug or vehicle to their scalps. Both a novice (Observer I) and an experienced (Observer II) hair counter independently performed the hair counts. snip.. Without the application of a placebo, there was no increase in hair regrowth, making it unlikely that the methods of hair counting led to the ‘placebo-effect’ seen in previous topical minoxidil studies.
Lab Anim Sci. 1980 Aug;30(4 Pt 1):681-3.
The hair cycle of the Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).
Musser TK, Silverman J.
Growth of hair in 27 Syrian golden hamsters was first observed at 9 days of age and continued to 51 days of age when it ceased. Cessation of growth continued until the hamsters were 71-75 days of age, at which time growth resumed. Hair regrowth always began in pigmented skin areas before it did in the unpigmented areas. Hair growth in the flank organ did not cease at 51 days of age but continued to grow.
Dr Proctor notes: the flank organ is androgen responsive and is sometimes used as an experimental model for antiandrogens used in hair loss treatment such as spironolactone.
Aust N Z J Surg. 1975 Nov;45(4):325-30
Acute zinc deficency in man during intravenous alimentation.
Kay RG, Tasman-Jones C.
Changes in the plasma levels and urinary excretion of zinc have been studied in a series of adult patients receiving intravenous alimentation. Urinary zinc loss may be very high in this group, but serious plasma depletion does not occur unless there is a concomitant phase of sustained anabolism in the absence of significant exogenous intake. A syndrome of acute zinc deficiency is described consisting of diarrhea, mental apathy and depression, a moist eczematoid dermatitis, most severe in the perioral area and alopecia (hair loss). The response to intravenous zinc therapy is very striking although alopecia is slower to develop and complete hair regrowth is correspondingly delayed.
Hair Loss and Hair Loss Treatment